Nickel-hydrogen cells and, more recently, bipolar batteries have been built by a variety of organizations. The design principles that have been used by the technology group at the NASA Lewis Research Center draw upon their extensive background in separator technology, alkaline fuel cell technology, and several alkaline cell technology areas. These design principles have been incorporated into both the more contemporary individual pressure vessel (IPV) designs that were pioneered by other groups, as well as the more recent bipolar battery designs using active cooling that are being developed at NASA Lewis Research Center and under contract. These principles are rather straightforward applications of capillary force formalisms, coupled with the slowly developing data base resulting from careful post test analyses. The objective of this overall effort is directed towards the low-Earth-orbit (LEO) application where the cycle life requirements are much more severe than the geosynchronous-orbit (GEO) application. A summary of the design principles employed is presented along with a discussion of the recommendations for component pore sizes and pore size distributions, as well as suggested materials of construction. These will be made based on our experience in these areas to show how these design principles have been translated into operating hardware.